Context of the research:
Under the three-year Joint Programme (JP) on Gender Equality (GE),  twelve UN agencies and Programmes: FAO, ILO, IOM1, UNAIDS, UNDP, UNESCO, UNFPA, UNICEF, UNIDO, UNIFEM, UNODC, and WHO; in partnership with the Government of Vietnam, will provide strategic, coordinated and multi-sectoral technical assistance to build the capacity of national and provincial duty bearers so that they can better implement, monitor, evaluate and report on the Law on Gender Equality (GEL) and the Law on Domestic Violence Prevention and Control (DVL) from 2009-2011.
A key goal of the JP is to establish a ‘strengthened evidence-based data and data systems for promoting GE. The research into ‘The situation of sex work in Viet Nam; A gender perspective on the relationship between sex work and mobility’, is one of three research initiatives  that IOM will conduct in partnerships with the Government of Viet Nam in order to support the achievement of this objective.

Background information
- Gender and mobility are cross cutting issues that could be said to play a strong role in shaping the experience and situation of sex work in Viet Nam. Gender and mobility can influence women’s entry into sex work, their experience of being a sex worker and the barriers that they face if they decide that they want to exit sex work.
- In Viet Nam, the last decade has seen an unprecedented rise in the participation of women in labor migration. While women and girls traditionally migrated with their spouses and families as dependents, they are now migrating independently, as income earners in their own right. Many factors are contributing to this shift in the demographic of migrants, that has become known as the feminization of migration. The growing poverty or relative poverty in rural areas has pushed women to migrate into the labor force, in order to supplement the income of their families back home. Cultural tradition and gender norms typically position women as dutiful daughters, spouses or mothers, and are thus perceived as more reliable remittance senders than men. There is also a growing demand for female labor in certain industries, such as the manufacturing and the sex industry. As such while women can be said to be participating equally in labor migration from a purely statistical point of view, their participation is concentrated in specific, often unregulated sectors. Even when women are employed in the same jobs as men, they are typically paid less, for performing the same tasks. When women and girls are migrating, they may face problems related to accessing housing, employment, social networks and health services. These circumstances combine to create powerful push and pull factors for rural women and girls entry into sex work.
In addition, there is a recognition that sex workers often move from one location to another. One of the reasons is strong stigma and discrimination against sex workers. While it is socially acceptable and even expected for men to purchase sex, female sex workers themselves face both moral and legal condemnation. It is thought that sex workers move frequently to prevent police raids or incarceration. A further feature that is thought to contribute to high levels of mobility among female sex works is the client driven demand for new faces. There is also a close relationship between mobility and vulnerability. Mobility can make sex workers vulnerable, and vulnerabilities - or avoiding vulnerabilities - can make sex workers mobile2. In spite of this link, we know very little about sex workers’ patterns of movements and the nature and extent of interaction among them. Researches and studies conducted mainly focus on sex work and intervention programmes but there is not much knowledge about whether and why some forms of mobility and sex work, at certain times and under certain conditions, are related.

Research rationale
Sex workers are vulnerable to multiple forms of abuse, exploitation and health problems. They also face multiple barriers to accessing health, legal and other services. Such challenges are compounded for undocumented migrants working in sex work who are often excluded from services that that target local residents, and have minimal established support networks. Although many factors contribute to such situation, it should be accepted that mobility itself makes it  harder for sex workers to access services, and harder for service providers to reach sex workers. 
There is a great need to develop a more comprehensive understanding of the situation of sex work in Viet Nam, particularly in relation to patterns of mobility, and the role of gender norms in influencing these patterns, in order to inform new research and support the development of protective policies, programs and services.
A literature review will be conducted to identify and consolidate existing research and data on sex work, mobility and gender. It will be based on available articles though web-based, online searching, access to journal databases, access to libraries in Hanoi (IOM, World Bank, NGO Resource Centre) and studies available from organizations and government offices. The literature review will consist of a review of web-based literature and peer-reviewed journals, a review of secondary data and grey literature, and visits with key stakeholders and organizations working in the area of mobility, sex work or HIV. Several focus-group discussions should be included as validation and as a resource for additional information related to policy, programming, and needs.

The research objectives and its scope
The overall objective of the ‘situation of Sex Work in Viet Nam’ desk review is to better understand the situation of sex work in Vietnam, through an exploration of issues and relationships between sex work, mobility and gender, including any particular vulnerability associated with this possible relationship. The review aims to contribute to the development of programs, policies and strategies relating to sex work, as well as to provide recommendations for further research.

The proposed review aims to achieve the following specific objectives:
1. To have a better understanding of the patterns of sex work and mobility, and how these patterns relate to gender
2. To examine the determinants of entry, practices and exits from sex work with particular emphasis on gender and mobility-related issues
3. To inform the design of research, policies, and intervention programmes
In terms of scope, the literature review will attempt uncover the relationship between mobility, sex work and gender in each of the three phases identified below. Particular attention will be given to issues where the interplay between mobility and sex work results in increased vulnerability of sex workers. A rights-based framework will be adopted, which identifies rights of sex workers guaranteed in the international and national human rights instruments, the way in which these rights are exercisable to sex workers, and especially mobile sex workers. The three phases and relevant key areas which the review will cover are:

Entry into Sex Work
Entry-points into sex work, especially considering the role of gender and mobility, and factors leading to mobility
What is the frequency of their mobility? What are patterns of their mobility? What are their destinations and where do they originate from?
What are the individual, community or structural factors that determine their movement and mobility?
Had they engaged in various forms of work prior to entering sex work and or while working at entertainment establishments or informal sectors?
How gender roles and norms influence their mobility and entry into sex work?
The decision, acquiescence or otherwise to engage in sex work. This would include:
Whether the entry point in sex work was informed, coerced or influenced by family, friends or others?
Factors which influenced the decision made (if any) to enter into sex work? Is it the only option to generate a livelihood? Or did they begin selling sex of their own volition?  Was the sale of their virginity a key factor driving young women's entrance into the industry?
Expectations prior to entry in relation to practices, conditions and access
How gender roles (women and girls as well as boys and men, transgender and trans-sexual individuals if any) may influence decisions (or lack there of) to enter sex work
Practices, Conditions and Access of Sex Workers
Different types of sex work, as well as the drivers and entry points for each type (especially considering the role of mobility and factors leading to mobility, as well as the impact of gender norms and gender issues)
Review existing patterns of sex work as documented in the literature. This section would include the contextual environment such as:
types of settings of sex work for men and women (and differences for mobile sex workers)
conditions (gender-based violence, safety and security, stigma and discrimination, poor work environments, and lack of legislative frameworks, etc.)
health, especially reproductive health issue
availability and accessibility of friendly social services (cover both gender and mobility)
power structures (leading to sex work and during sex work (and differences for mobile sex workers)
patterns of intermediaries, sexual networks, and the role of mobility (regular movement both between establishments and type of sex work)
Emerging, or shifting, patterns of operation, power structures, sexual networks, and mobility (Was temporary movement out of the industry in response to new livelihood opportunities common?)
Access to legal services and social support, education (for sex workers and their children,) and household registration

STI and HIV services and health seeking behaviour including:
Determinants of HIV in sex work and vulnerability in migrant and mobile sex workers
Access to public and private services and whether mobility influences access
Drug use and sex work and how mobility influences use and treatment
Issues faced by sex workers’ children and families
The national programme response and the support and needs related to access to services, legal aid, information, peer support, condoms, HIV treatment, STI services, and other programme strategies and how mobility affects access
Exit from Sex Work
Current practices and patterns of arrest for sex workers, including forced rehabilitation, and the particular vulnerability (if any) of mobile sex workers to these practices
The role of gender in influencing these patterns
Reintegration difficulties after ceasing sex work (both voluntarily or forced) and particular difficulties (if any) associated with reintegration for mobile sex workers.
The role of gender norms in creating or combating these challenges
Proposed format of the literature review
1. Introduction and context
2. Methodology
3. Demographics and patterns of sex work
4. Gender and mobility aspects of sex work
a. Entry into sex work, taking into account gender issues
b. Practices, conditions of sex work and access of sex workers, taking into account gender issues
c. Exit from sex work, taking into account gender issues.
5. Policies and programmes
6. Gaps
7. Conclusions
8. Recommendations (especially for research and policy and programme gaps)

Management structure
DSEP, in collaboration IOM and Gender Equality Department, will hire a  consultant to conduct this Literature Review. During this Review, the consultant will report to DSEP designated focal point. With IOM and government staffs’ support, the consultant will take the lead in developing the Review Plan, contacting appropriate agencies and organizations, as well as conducting focus group discussions with key informants for data collection, validation and report writing. The consultant will work closely with IOM for technical guidance and support. The consultant will maintain regular communication with DSEP, IOM and related government agencies on the progress of the study.
Details of consultant’s activities include:
Developing a Review Outline and data collection tools in consultation with DSEP, IOM and related government agencies
Collecting published and unpublished reports and articles, etc. from the previous studies regarding the review topics 
Conducting a critical literature review
Collecting and analyzing supplementary data in collaboration with DSEP, IOM and related government agencies through focus group discussions
Drafting and finalizing the report based on the comments to be provided by DSEP, IOM and  related government agencies
Outputs expected from the consultant
Outputs will be submitted to DSEP and related as scheduled, including:
The draft report in English which cover proposed objectives will be submitted three weeks following the consultancies start date.
The final report in English no later than two weeks after received the comments.

Selection Criteria
1. Master degree in public health, social science, gender studies or related field;
2. Technical expertise in conducting literature and research;
3. Profound knowledge of gender and human rights, and good skills in gender analysis;
4. At least five years working experience in the area of sex work and or mobile populations; 
5. Good knowledge of the workings of the Vietnamese Governmental and inter-governmental system. Working experience with DSEP, UN agencies preferred;
6. Exceptional and proven analytical, writing communications and facilitation skills; and
7. Fluency in English.

Application Process
Vietnamese national who meet the selection criteria should send their CV’s accompanied by a cover letter to Lynn Chaitman : [email protected]

Job Details
Organisation Name: 
Ha Noi
Application Deadline: 
Fri, 2009-12-25