Consultant to Conduct Situation Analysis to Identify the Usage and Attitude of Wildlife Consumers of Rhino, Oangolin, and Elephant


Conduct a Situation Analysis to identify the usage and attitude of wildlife consumers of rhino, pangolin, and elephant


Viet Nam is an important source, transit, and destination center in the illegal global wildlife trade. High-value commodities from threatened species which are illegally traded include elephant ivory, pangolin meat and scales, rhino horn, and big cat products. Those products are used by wealthy and high-level individuals seeking status or influence. Others consider these products as formal or informal (tonic drink) Traditional Asian Medicine (TAM) ingredients that are prescribed or self-prescribed for health treatments. Wild meat remains highly desired as a luxury product. The continued demand and use of those products threaten the survival of populations of the species.

The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Saving Threatened Wildlife Project is USAID/Vietnam's flagship implementation vehicle for combating wildlife trafficking. It will be implemented by WWF in partnership with the Management Board for Forestry Projects of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development. The objectives of USAID Saving Threatened Wildlife are to:

  1. Engage and develop political and local Counter Wildlife Trafficking (CWT) champions
  2. Enhance CWT law enforcement
  3. Reduce consumer demand for illegal wildlife products

The primary biodiversity targets of the Saving Threatened Wildlife project include African and Asian rhinos, African and Asian elephants, Asian pangolins, big cats, and fresh-water turtles and tortoises. However, the project activities will benefit various species through general improvements in governance and law enforcement and social behavior change (SBC) initiatives. The Saving Threatened Wildlife focuses geographically on major urban centers (including Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Da Nang, Can Tho, Quang Ninh, Hai Phong, Nghe An, Ha Tinh, Dak Lak) where target species are consumed, as well as areas where target species are normally trafficked, including airports, seaports, and specific land borders.

TRAFFIC is a key sub awardee of the Saving Threatened Wildlife project in Vietnam and is the technical lead on the Social and Behaviour Change (SBC) component. To achieve project outcomes, a holistic SBC strategy, based on audience-led research, to reduce demand for and consumption of key species by identified targeted audience groups will be nationally rolled out. Within that context, TRAFFIC is currently seeking a research agency to conduct a Situation Analysis to prepare a synthesis of existing insight into the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) of wildlife consumers of rhino, pangolin, and elephant, including socio-economic and psycho-demographic signifiers.

There has been a significant amount of consumer research conducted previously about the consumption of rhino horn, pangolin, and elephant products in Vietnam, and a synthesis of this research should be provided through secondary research. Examples will be provided to the successful research agency. It is also critical any primary research survey design would generate new knowledge to build on this existing body of evidence. The research agency must investigate the survey lists in Annex 1 attached.

The impacts of COVID-19 on wildlife trade and consumption of Vietnamese audiences and international tourists should also be considered to ensure that SBC interventions address any changes in consumers' KAP because of the global pandemic. Evaluation of relevant past communication efforts should be included to identify gaps and opportunities and provide insights to facilitate the development of unique, innovative, and impactful future interventions under the Saving Threatened Wildlife project.

The research will focus on the three following groups of target audiences for different uses including emotional, functional, and spiritual:

  • Users/buyers and intenders of rhino, elephant, and pangolin products.
  • Domestic and international tourists.

The TAM sector includes practitioners and others involved in and/or related to the industry.

The description of use-type could be understood as follows[1]:

  • Emotional drive reflects behaviors that represent the purchase or use of products as part of leisure; for reputational gain and/or for social gain, i.e., to impress a peer group with newfound status.
  • Functional drive reflects behaviors that represent the purchase or use of products to fulfill a simple need for protein or food; and/or for perceived treatment of illness or promotion of wellness.
  • Spiritual drive reflects behaviors that represent the purchase or use of products to bring good fortune for business and life.

In summary, the Situation Analysis will help inform project baselines, paving the way for insight-led, audience-driven, and measurable SBC interventions.

A budget of no more than USD $40,000 inclusive of 10% Vietnamese Government Value Added Tax/Personal Income Tax, is available for the research. The research expects to be implemented within three months.

Interested agencies should propose a research plan that will effectively meet the research objectives (see Research Objectives p3) within the budget. The agency is expected to present a summary of the organization's suitability and experience and an itemized breakdown of anticipated costs. Please note that the budget assessment will include consideration of "value for money."

The research proposal, itemized budget, and agency capability statement in English should be submitted to Ms. Loan via [email protected] and [email protected] by COB 17:00 dated Friday 4 March 2022. The deadline for the project completion (including full research report and other deliverables) is by 27 June 2022.


The objective of the Situation Analysis is to provide baseline data for the Saving Threatened Wildlife project, in relation to the awareness, attitudes, values, motivations, and behaviors of the buyers, users, and intending consumers of rhino, elephant, and pangolin products in Vietnam.

With that purpose, the research willfocus on a primary research plus the conduction of additional secondary one to provide a representative overview of the Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) of buyers/ users/ non-users/intended users of the targeted three species. Notedly, the recruitment of intentional tourists must be included in the sample size, and surveying methods with this group should be clearly explained. 

The research should provide insights into the following:

  • Incidence of people currently buying, using, or intending to buy/use these wildlife products; the prevalence, frequency, the volume of purchase/ use of these species, and the channels of purchase of these species.
  • Clarify the profile of each consumer group/motivational cluster of the consumers of products from each species: demographics, economics, education, family background, and the awareness, knowledge, attitudes, intention, and actual behavior relating to trading/ consumption amongst target consumers of each species (including cross-checking with existing consumer profiles to identify changes).
  • Identification of the major existing motivations and barriers driving/preventing the purchase/ use of the products from each species.
  • Exploration of how COVID-19 impacts the current usage/buying and intention, reaction for price fluctuation, perceptions about market availability of target wildlife products, and awareness & attitudes toward conservation issues and wildlife protection amongst the Vietnamese audiences and international tourists.
  • Identification of priority communications message, messenger, and dissemination channels.


As stated in Part 1 of this TOR, a synthesis of this research should be provided through secondary research to avoid duplication with a significant amount of consumer research conducted previously about the consumption of rhino horn, pangolin, and elephant products in Vietnam. Apart from Annex 1, the research agency is welcome to provide any other relevant references in their research.

The agency should consider both secondary and primary research, and for the latter, qualitative and quantitative research approaches. A critical factor to consider in identifying the methodologies used is that respondents may be aware that what they are doing is immoral or illegal. The survey company will be expected to make a recommendation on the best method and to use sensitive questioning techniques and social safeguard approaches where relevant.

The sample surveyed should be reasonably representative of the general public of Vietnam for the group of domestic audiences; although it is understood for practical reasons, this may need to focus on urban, or semi-urban, rather than rural residents. Recruitment and ways to reach and track the change of behavior of international tourists should be proposed.

The research should be conducted in cities/provinces where target species are consumed and areas where target species are trafficked, including airports, seaports, and specific land borders. The research agency should propose the survey locations ensuring that they meet the research objectives and are within the project's scope of implementation.

The chosen research agency will work closely with the TRAFFIC and MEL Specialist of the Saving Threatened Wildlife project on research design, questionnaire/ discussion guide development, data analysis, and report, and sign-off will be required at all stages of the research design and implementation.

4.     OUTPUT

Outputs will be in the form of regular progress reports and a final narrative report and PowerPoint summary. Please note that sanitized/anonymized versions of the raw data will also be required. Regular progress reports will be needed at each stage of the schedule of agreed activities to assess progress and quickly address any problems arising. The final report, including analysis of results, will be reviewed, and approved by TRAFFIC and WWF. All data tables, background data files, and other related materials are property of USAID, data management should ensure confidentiality of respondents.

All reports will be prepared in both English and Vietnamese.






Posting/circulation of the RFP

27 Jan 2022


Evaluation of proposals and contacting research agencies

10 Mar 2022


Start the contract with selected research agency

15 Mar 2022


Finalization of the research plan

18 Mar 2022


Conducting the research

Finished by end - May 2022


Draft report

7 June2022


Final report

17 June 2022


Presentation of findings

No later than one week after the final report


Approved final reports available for use

By 27 June 2022


Proposals will be evaluated according to the Proposal Evaluation Criteria by the Review and Selection Committee. Only short-listed candidates will be contacted. Proposals with accompanying documentation will not be returned to unsuccessful candidates.

The short-listed companies will be requested to prepare a 30-minute oral presentation (using PowerPoint) of their proposal (technical and cost proposals) and Q&A session for further clarifications. This presentation will not be submitted with the proposal mentioned above. However, this presentation must be ready for the final selection process that will happen within three days after the announcement of shortlisted agencies.

TRAFFIC will make every reasonable attempt to schedule each presentation at a time that is agreeable to the agency. Failure of an agency to conduct a presentation on the date scheduled may result in the rejection of the agency's proposal.

The scoring for both proposals (primary score) and presentation (interview score) will be tabulated. The Final Score of the evaluation will be the accumulated scores of Primary and Interview Score. The Final Score will be taken for the ultimate selection of tender to the proposal.

Apart from the required dossiers, the chosen agency will be required to sign the following Certifications. Failure to do so may result in rejection of the agency's proposal

  1. Certification Regarding Responsibility Matters - APR 2010. (FAR Reference 52.209-5),
  2. Prohibition on Assistance to Drug Traffickers. (22 CFR Part 140),
  3. Certification Regarding Terrorist Financing. (Implementation of Executive Order 13224),
  4. Anti-Kickback Procedures – OCT 2010. (FAR Reference 52.203-7), and,
  5. Certification and Disclosure Regarding Payments to Influence Certain Federal Transactions - SEP 2007 (FAR Reference 52.203-11).

7.      HOW TO APPLY:

The research proposal, itemized budget, and agency capability statement in English should be submitted to Ms. Loan via [email protected] and [email protected] by COB 17:00 dated Friday 4 March 2022. The deadline for the project completion (including full research report and other deliverables) is by 27 June 2022.

Annex 1: List of reference data on the consumption of rhino horn, ivory, and pangolin products in Vietnam

1. USAID (Globescan), 2018, Consumer Demand for Rhino, Elephant, and Pangolin Products in Vietnam: here

2. USAID (Globescan), 2021, Consumer Demand for Rhino, Elephant, and Pangolin Products in Vietnam (not yet published, to be sent to the short-listed candidate).

3. USAID (Indochina Research), 2021, A Monitoring Survey of the Chi III Social and Behavior Change Campaign to Reduce Demand for Rhino Horn Parts and Products in Vietnam (not yet published, to be sent to the short-listed candidate).

4. TRAFFIC (Indochina Research), 2021, Consumer Demand for Rhino horn in Traditional Medicine (not yet published, to be sent to the short-listed candidate).

5. Sam Campbell, Gayle Burgess, Stephen Watson, James Compton, 2021, Situation analysis: Social and Behaviour Change Messaging on Wildlife Trade and Zoonotic Disease Risks: here

6. Laura A. Thomas-Walters, 2018, Mapping Motivations: Combating consumption of illegal wildlife in Viet Nam: here

7. USAID Wildlife Asia 2020 Case Digest: here

8. WWF (Globescan), May 2021, COVID-19 one year later public perceptions about pandemics and their links to nature: here

9. WWF (Globescan), March 2020, Opinion Survey on COVID-19 and Wildlife Trade in 5 Asian Market: here

10. Robin Naidoo, Daniel Bergin and Jan Vertefeuille, 2021, Socio-demographic correlates of wildlife consumption during early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic: here

11. WWF (Globescan), 2021, Demand Under the Ban China Ivory Consumption Research 2021: here

12. Alegria Olmedo, 2021, Pangolin consumption is more prevalent than past studies have shown: here




Job Details
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Application Deadline: 
Fri, 2022-03-04